The Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (2018 Farm Act) was signed into law Dec. 20, 2018, and will remain in force through the end of fiscal year 2023, although some provisions extend beyond 2023.
The Congressional Budget Office projected that the new Farm Act would mandate spending of $428 billion dollars over the next five fiscal years (2019-2023).
A large majority of projected spending—76 percent ($326.02 billion)—would fund nutrition programs, with most going to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).
Crop insurance ($38.01 billion), farm commodity programs ($31.44 billion), and conservation programs ($29.27 billion) accounted for nearly all of the remaining outlays.
Approximately 0.8 percent ($3.54 billion) would fund all other programs, including trade, credit, rural development, research and extension, forestry, energy, horticulture, and miscellaneous programs.
Overall, the 2018 Farm Act made fewer changes to food and farm policy than the 2014 Farm Act. Nutrition policy, particularly SNAP, continued with minor changes.
Crop insurance options and agricultural commodity programs continued largely as under the 2014 Farm Act. All major conservation programs continued, although some were modified significantly. — USDA Economic Research Service