What happens to a commercial Angus herd after 23 years of selection led by marbling? No worries, really, just premium opportunities.
That’s the nutshell from veteran Iowa State University (ISU) animal scientist Dan Loy, whose team recently authored a white paper based on data from their quality-selected Angus herd.
In November, Loy reminded producers at the Angus Convention in Reno, NV, “Reproduction in the cow herd is very complex. There’s a genetic component—that’s the big box across the top—but it’s impacted by the environment and nutrition at different stages—there are a lot of moving parts.”
Noting past studies and literature reviews, he then focused on ISU’s Angus cow herds, first set up in 1996 as a means to use ultrasound-based selection for either high marbling or high yield. In 2002, the latter herd was dispersed when American Angus Association’s statistical tools had improved. The breed’s expected progeny difference (EPD) for marbling (MARB) has guided the 400-cow herd at the fescue-based McNay Farms in southcentral Iowa since then (see sidebar).
Loy compared the Angus MARB versus the ISU herd’s EPD over time, simplified with trend lines that currently show the average ISU cows now higher than 1 while the Angus average nears 0.6.
Looking at interactions with other EPDs, he pointed out the Iowa cows lagged behind on heifer pregnancy early on.
“We’ve been improving that through the years so that, currently, we’re about breed average,” he said, adding the same can be said for the milk and weaning weight EPDs.
An unusual feature of the Iowa herd is the internally raised crop of breeding bulls. They allow for “a unique dataset,” Loy said, that includes the ability to track the scrotal circumference EPD, slightly above breed average, and within the Angus breed, slightly positive in its correlation to marbling.
The ISU herd phenotype in terms of carcass performance can be seen in the finished steers and heifers marketed in the last five years, currently at 93 percent or more qualified for the Certified Angus Beef (CAB) brand, including 57 percent Prime.
“I like to say Prime is the new Choice,” Loy remarked, “because working with feedlot nutritionists, and in the research, you always see quality expressed in terms of percent Choice.
“With these cattle, that’s a meaningless number, because they’re all Choice,” he said. A guiding principle now is, “We just need to figure out how not to screw that up.”
Average ribeye area, fat thickness and yield grade within the ISU herd are “very typical of the industry,” Loy said, although the carcass weights are a little lighter.
The research setting and quality goals open research doors into the timing of marbling deposition as well as how brood cows deplete and build up intramuscular fat during a production year.
Serial harvest of steers has found weanling steers that could already grade Choice.
“We know marbling starts much earlier in life that was thought, and it’s a slower process,” Loy said. The ISU team has just started monitoring marbling levels in cows during gestation to see how much it may draw down or increase with body condition scores.
Other datasets include calving intervals and reproductive success over time, compared to marbling. Simple correlations found significant, slightly positive relationships with heifer pregnancy, number of calves produced and even numerically favorable in terms of calving interval.
“So that’s in the right direction,” Loy noted.
“Overall, it’s kind of like a broken record and a little bit boring, but we found very little relationship between marbling and reproduction,” he concluded. — Steve Suther, CAB