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Monday, March 7,2005

January slaughter, red meat output down

by WLJ
USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service recently reported that commercial red meat production in the U.S. totaled 3.65 billion pounds in January, down two percent from the 3.71 billion pounds produced in January 2004. Beef production, at 1.92 billion pounds, was slightly below the previous year. Cattle slaughter totaled 2.53 million head, down two percent from January 2004. The average live weight was up 13 pounds from the previous year, at 1,262 pounds. Veal production totaled 13.3 million pounds, 17 percent below January a year ago. Calf slaughter totaled 67,700 head, down 14 percent from January 2004. The average live weight was seven pounds below last year, at 329 pounds. Pork production totaled 1.70 billion pounds, down three percent from the previous year. Hog kill totaled 8.48 million head, four percent below January 2004. The average live weight was one pound above the previous year, at 270 pounds. Lamb and mutton production, at 14.4 million pounds, was down seven percent from January 2004. Sheep slaughter totaled 208,500 head, five percent below last year. The average live weight of slaughter sheep was 138 pounds, down three pounds from January 2004. — WLJ

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Monday, March 7,2005

Information to crimestoppers solves livestock offenses

by WLJ
The shooting of four cows in north-central Montana was recently solved with information provided through the Montana Livestock Crimestoppers program and the local sheriff's office. The shooting of domestic livestock is just one of the crimes Montana producers face, according to Jack Wiseman, Brands Enforcement Administrator with the Montana Department of Livestock. Others include the alteration of a brand on an animal and theft of livestock from the field or from a sale written with a bad check. The Livestock Crimestoppers program can help solve many of these types of crimes if people are aware of the program and report suspicious activity. Initiated in 1983, the Montana Livestock Crimestoppers was the first Crimestoppers program focused on livestock crimes. "Similar to other Crimestoppers programs around the country, this one relies on citizens to help halt the incidence of theft and vandalism on farms and ranches," Wiseman said. Another component to fighting livestock crimes is proper branding. In eastern Montana, livestock producers reported cows missing when they removed them from leased pasture. Upon investigation, the cows were discovered with altered brands mixed in with another herd. "The main reason livestock should be branded is to prove ownership," Wiseman said. "Branded livestock provide law enforcement with a permanent mark that helps them determine ownership and trace back missing or stolen livestock." Hot iron branding is a permanent means of identifying ownership. Attempts may be made to alter a hot iron brand, but it cannot be removed. There are 15 states with brand enforcement programs, including Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. Theft of livestock is greatly reduced in Montana because of the strict regulations in place for movement of livestock. The Brands Enforcement division of the DOL includes 18 district investigators who are law enforcement personnel. The DOL has 26 certified law enforcement personnel. In Montana, livestock must be inspected or permitted before crossing a county line, at change of ownership or at slaughter. "Selling livestock isn't much different than selling a car or pickup," Wiseman said. "The owner has to prove ownership in order for the transaction to take place." Stray cattle that bear unreadable brands are sold and the proceeds are held at the DOL pending proper proof of ownership. If the owner cannot be identified, the money goes into the estray account to be used for the Montana Livestock Crimestoppers program. Brands are recorded in the offices of the DOL, and a brand usually remains in the same family for generations. Currently, there are approximately 60,000 brands in Montana. Brands must be recorded and renewed every 10 years. The next re-record year is 2011. "There are some things that livestock producers can do to help limit crimes," Wiseman said. "Watch for strange vehicles in your area and get descriptions, license plate numbers and the time and date you observed these vehicles; brand livestock clearly; keep a close count on your livestock and post the property that livestock are branded and can be identified; check your herd frequently and place catch pens away from the road." Producers and others are encouraged to report suspicious activities regarding livestock to Montana Livestock Crimestoppers 1-800-503-6084. — WLJ

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Monday, March 7,2005

Letters

by WLJ
Clarifying OCM article Pete, I saw your reference to my OCM article and I wanted to clarify a few things. First, you mentioned that fed cattle prices usually make a big break by August. That is basically true and that was the whole point of my article. With the Canadian border being closed, prices have been much better than normal and we didn’t see the big break in prices in the summer. When the border is opened, fundamentals will return to normal and you had better be prepared for a break in the market. August live cattle have only been over $80 when the Canadian border has been closed and the 10-year average of contract lows in the August live cattle is $62.28. That seemed rather ominous to me when I wrote the article and August futures were between $80-$81. To quote myself exactly from my article to the OCM “Looking back at August live cattle prior to closing the Canadian border, things aren’t pretty. In 2003 the contract low was $65.40 and the market never broke $72 until the border was closed. In 2002 the contract high was only $75.20 and the low was $59.75. Currently the August live cattle are between $80-$81. By the time we get to August, the fundamentals of the cattle market will be similar to 2002 and 2003 so you can’t tell me that a $5-$10 break isn’t likely. You also can’t tell me that a $20 break isn’t possible. Remember, we had the Asian export market then and the mid to lower $70’s proved to be good resistance to the market.” You also mentioned that the reputable economists that you spoke to thought that a $60 per head negative impact would be about the most we would see. I hope they are right, but I think that they are a bit optimistic. You could make the case that we are already seeing a $60 per head loss just in anticipation of the border opening, because last year in SW Kansas cash cattle averaged about $84 in August and right now August futures are at $79. That is a $5/cwt difference, which is $60 per 1,200 lb. animal. Lastly, regarding the “awful good” feeder cattle market in Canada, 700-800 lb. feeder cattle in southern Alberta last week averaged $85.52. Compare that to similar Montana feeder cattle bringing $95-$107. Fed steers in Alberta brought $73.38 compared to $86.75, which was the U.S. average. (These prices are all in U.S. dollars, so there is no conversion to calculate.) There may not be holding pens of Canadian cattle aimed at the U.S., and the process of getting them to the U.S. may be slow at first, but there is an undeniable economic incentive to move cattle south of the border. Thank you, Bret Crotts Schwieterman Marketing, LLC Garden City, KS Impossible to build dams Editor: I would like to comment on an article that appeared in your Feb. 14, issue, “Water Scarcity Looms.” We have made it almost impossible to build reservoirs and dams along our rivers and streams to capture and store or slow down flows. Instead, we allow this “diminishing fresh water” supply to run out to sea for reasons I fail to either understand or agree with. The solutions are out there. Sincerely, Vaudine Cullins Alturas, CA NCBA, WLJ misinformation Dear Pete, It seems rather odd you didn’t admit all the mis-information you and NCBA. have been passing on to those of us who are producers that the producers and feeders were running NCBA. You had Steven Vetter write the comments stating “the cow calf producers and feeders finally had their concerns heard and addressed through the policy making process at the NCBA convention.” It has been a flip flop process and it shows a few controlled NCBA and not for the best interest of producers and feeders. If NCBA had been using their present policy about opening the Canadian border from the beginning things would be a lot different. While I was on the Beef Checkoff Board, I was part of the foreign trade committee for one year and we spent a lot of time with Phil Sing, of the Meat Export Federation. It has always been a tough battle dealing with Japan and if we wait until we have a full export market with Japan before we open the Canadian border it will be a long time. Pete, you have stated opening the Canadian border to cow beef from Canada wouldn’t be as bad as the dairy buyout. The dairy buyout was short lived if Canada is allowed to send 250,000 cows to the U.S. for processing or if the cows are processed in Canada and the meat is sent here it will have a very negative effect on our cull cow market. Not only that, consumer groups could challenge cow beef in the U.S. from Canada and ruin our domestic market. COOL could be quite simple, as choice beef if is already separated from select. Schools, the military and McDonald’s use domestic beef so it could be easily labeled. You recently stated that Canada needs more time to study the blue tongue and anaplasmosis issue. How much time do they need? I was on a Foreign Trade Committee for WCA over 20 years ago, and they have and are still using these issues as trade barriers. I have been president of the Washington Cattlemen’s Association, a director for WCA, and spent six years on the Beef Checkoff Board. I sold more memberships to WCA in 1979 than anyone else in the United States. I canceled my membership to NCBA last year after a membership that extended for over 35 years. If I am convinced feeders and producers are running it I will join again. In the mean time Pete you and NCBA will have to eat crow. Sincerely, Don McClure Nespelem, WA

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Monday, March 7,2005

Manure on field caused trout deaths

by WLJ
—Incident Comes Months After River Cleanup Manure spread on a frozen field is blamed for killing dozens of brown trout in southern Wisconsin—just two weeks before public hearings start on proposed new rules that would streamline the process for expanding livestock farms in the state. The West Branch of the Sugar River, near Mount Horeb in Dane County, had been removed last October from a federal government list of impaired waters after more than $900,000 in state and federal grants and thousands of volunteer hours turned a shallow, muddy stream into prime trout habitat. But officials said Monday that the stream was damaged because a farmer last week spread liquid cow manure on an icy field. A thaw Friday sent the waste running into the stream, said Michael Sorge, a water resources specialist with the state Department of Natural Resources who was on the scene. He said the trout were killed by ammonia from the manure. By late Monday, workers with the DNR had recovered more than 100 dead trout, some as long as 19 inches. DNR fish biologist Kurt Welke said many other dead fish remain on the stream bottom or stuck under the banks. He added that much of the manure is still on the frozen ground and could flow toward the stream with another thaw. “If there is a gradual warmup in temperature, then there may be a chronic but lesser amount of manure discharging to the river,” he said. “A quick jump in temperature may spell trouble in that a major slug could impact the river.” Over the weekend, workers built earthen berms in the field to hold back the manure. Sorge said heavy construction equipment was used Monday to break through the frozen surface of the field and allow the manure to soak into the soil. “One landowner making a poor decision may have undone 30 years of work in this watershed,” said Frank Fetter, who serves as executive director of the Upper Sugar River Watershed Association. According to DNR conservation warden David Wood, the farmer, whose name was not released, may have violated a law against polluting waterways. He said a violator could be subject to a fine of about $430 and restitution costs of about $26 per trout. Welke said the farmer was being cooperative in the cleanup and was among landowners who worked to restore the stream. He said the spill should focus attention on the problem of farmers spreading manure on frozen ground—a legal practice that nonetheless is a big environmental problem. “It seems to me that its time to have a frank discussion between the agricultural community and the regulatory community about certain practices that have long been viewed as normal,” he said. “We cannot winter-spread manure.” He suggested that alternatives be developed, such as providing a regional manure digester for farmers to use in winter. “I would certainly hope that the high profile of this raises the eyebrows of my administrators and also of the legislative community,” Welke said. State agriculture officials scheduled hearings in six cities this month—starting with a hearing in Jefferson March 14—on proposed rules implementing a new law on expansion of livestock farms and management of manure. The proposed rules would affect farms with 500 or more “animal units,” or about 350 or more milk cows or the equivalent. The rules “will provide producers with greater predictability when they’re making decisions about modernizing dairy operations,” said Rod Nilsestuen, state agriculture secretary. “The livestock siting law strikes a balance between growing animal agriculture, protecting the environment, and respecting local decision-making,” he said. — WLJ

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Monday, March 7,2005

Meat case trends shifting

by WLJ
A nationwide study of the retail meat case last year revealed rising demand for processed meat, natural products, protein variety, case-ready meats, and on-package information, according to the groups involved with the survey. The National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, National Pork Board (NPB), and food packaging supplier Cryovac Food Packaging conducted the 2004 National Meat Case Study (NMCS), which found that despite an increase in retail meat prices, consumer demand for meat remained strong. However, there were some noteworthy shifts in meat purchases, according to the study’s findings. Part of the study evaluated the size and composition of the self-serve fresh meat case in which beef, pork, and chicken were prominently displayed. According to the study results, these three core meat types represented 90 percent of the fresh meat and poultry linear feet and 91 percent of all packages. The study’s findings included an increase in case ready packaging of fresh meat products, a growing trend in boneless products, and evidence of increasing opportunities in consumer communication in the meat case. The research also showed, to varying degrees, that allocation of the meat case space is shifting, with fresh meat and poultry’s share of linear feet decreasing six percent since 2002. The big gainers from this shift included processed meats, particularly sausage, ham, and heat-and-serve products, which all up two percentage points. Ready-to-cook, value-added products and self-serve seafood were all up one percent. “We are very pleased to be a part of this coalition, along with the National Pork Board and Cryovac, to take a close look at key trends in meat cases across the country,” Randy Irion, director of retail marketing at NCBA, said. “The study’s findings are one way for us to gain a better understanding of what consumers want, and also work with the industry to meet those needs and ultimately help increase meat case sales.” The study also took a look at boneless products, the leader in share of packages sold in meat cases. According to the study, boneless packages represented 57 percent of packages displayed in the meat case. Also of note, natural and enhanced products had equal share in the meat case, with 22 percent of all packages carrying a “natural” claim and 21 percent of products being enhanced. “To a great extent, the NMCS 2004 results indicated strong consumer demand for variety in protein selection, a simplified shopping experience and quick and easy meal options from their meat departments,” the release said. “Specifically, the 2004 audits attested to a continuing opportunity for retailers to use point of purchase materials in order to communicate with consumers more effectively and sell more products in the meat case. The percent of packages with nutrition labeling, for example, increased by 10 percent in 2004 to 44 percent. Conversely, cooking information on-package decreased by three percentage points.” Karen Boillot, NPB director of retail marketing, said, “The NMCS’ 2004 findings clearly indicate that consumer communication can play a key role in meat case merchandising. The study supports our belief that efforts such as nutritional labeling and on-pack cooking information or recipes can help consumers make educated purchasing decisions in the meat case.” The study also showed a strong shift from in-store packaging of fresh meat products to packages prepared off-site, or “case ready” packages “ a convenient option for retailers. In 2004, case-ready represented 60 percent of self-serve meat case packages, which is an increase of 11 percent since 2002. “The merchandising changes seen in this study are only the beginning of more long-term trends that will continue to be observed in future studies,” Jerry Kelly, national coordinator of Cryovac’s retail task force, said “The meat case must continue to evolve to meet the growing demands consumer place on one of the most popular grocery store destinations “the meat case.” The NMCS 2004 was benchmarked against the same study conducted in 2002 to help provide further insights into emerging trends on a national basis. Texas Tech University conducted a majority of the in-store audits, and Lee and Co. analyzed the data. The study looked at 104 retailer stores in 43 key metropolitan markets across 29 states. — WLJ

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Monday, March 7,2005

Meat exports to increase

by WLJ
U.S. meat exports will increase markedly during the next 10 years, according to an article on cattlenetwork.com. The increase in U.S. meat exports will help the beef and chicken industries recover from disease-related market losses. Improved global economic growth and rising demand for meats will contribute to the gains in U.S. exports. The gradual recovery in beef exports to markets such as Japan and South Korea is also critical to the projections. The predictions assume that Brazil and Argentina will not be recognized as free of hoof-and-mouth disease (HMD) by key meat-importing countries, such as Japan, the cattlenetwork.com article said. U.S. beef exports primarily reflect demand for high-quality fed beef, with most U.S. beef exports typically going to markets in the Pacific Rim. With the loss of those markets following a bovine spongiform encephalopathy case in the United States in late-December 2003, U.S. beef exports were sharply lower in 2004. However, U.S. beef exports are projected to rise slowly as the October 2004 beef trade framework agreement between the United States and Japan facilitates the resumption of beef trade between the two countries, the article said. U.S. imports of processing beef from Australia and New Zealand are expected to decline as more, lower quality beef comes from domestic sources with the rebuilding of the U.S. cattle herd. The United States is now a net beef importer on a volume basis. U.S. pork exports will benefit somewhat from reduced beef exports as import demand shifts among competing meats. Pacific Rim nations and Mexico remain key markets for long-term growth of U.S. pork exports, cattlenetwork.com said. Canada continues to be a strong competitor in these markets. Brazil also is a major pork exporter. However, without nationwide HMD-free status, Brazil focuses its pork exports on Russia, Argentina, and Asian markets other than Japan and South Korea. U.S. broiler export growth is expected to slow from the rate of the 1990s, the article said. U.S. poultry producers will face strong competition from other major broiler exporting countries, particularly Brazil. — WLJ

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Monday, March 7,2005

Most dairy cattle to be TB tested prior to entering Texas

by WLJ
Beginning March 18, Texas will join more than 33 other states that require most dairy cows and dairy bulls to have a negative test for bovine tuberculosis (TB) within 60 days before entering the state. Targeted animals entering Texas will have to be officially identified with an ear tag and will be restricted at a designated facility until they test negative for TB at six months of age. With 807 registered dairies, Texas ranks among the top 10 states in the nation for dairy cattle and milk production. Nearly 62,000 dairy replacement animals entered the state in 2004. The new regulation provides testing exemptions for dairy cattle that originate from herds tested yearly under a TB-accreditation program, neutered dairy cattle being fed for slaughter, and dairy cattle delivered directly to slaughter. These animals, however, must have a certificate of veterinary inspection, issued within 30 days prior to movement. “During the past 18 months, the 335,000 cattle in Texas’ dairies have been tested for cattle TB, and it is only prudent to ensure that incoming replacement dairy cattle also are free of the disease,” said Dr. Dee Ellis, who heads up animal health programs for the Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC). Beef cattle will continue to enter Texas under existing regulations. Ellis pointed out that concerns about cattle TB in dairy operations have increased, particularly after four dairies and two related operations were found to be infected detected during the 2004 federal fiscal year, from October 2003 through September 2004. Two infected herds and a dairy heifer-raising facility were found in New Mexico, a dairy heifer-raising facility in Arizona, states which had USDA’s TB-free designation. An infected dairy was found in Michigan. During Texas’ statewide dairy testing, an infected herd was found in Hamilton County, and subsequently depopulated. Ellis explained that infected cattle can expose herd mates to the TB bacteria by coughing or contaminating feed with drool or nasal discharge. In confined operations, like dairies, TB can spread more readily. Because dairy animals often are kept for several years, infected animals can develop the characteristic internal lesions in the lungs, lymph nodes and other organs, and begin the cycle of disease exposure again. Infected cattle may pose a risk to handlers who work with the animals daily. Milk from commercial dairies, is heat-treated, or pasteurized, to kill bacteria. At slaughter, state or federal meat inspectors examine carcasses, collect tissue samples for testing, and condemn meat unsafe or unfit for human consumption. “Because there is no effective treatment for cattle TB in livestock, infected herds must either destroyed under a government indemnity, or payment, or the herd is placed under quarantine and tested repeatedly over a period of months, until all animals that respond to a test are depopulated. After being released from quarantine, the herd still is subjected to a yearly test for five years, to ensure the animals remain free of the disease, Often, the best option is depopulation, as this eliminates the potential for the disease to reoccur or spread,” said Ellis. After two TB-infected cattle herds were detected in 2001, Texas lost its USDA TB-free designation just a few months shy of its two-year anniversary for achieving the coveted status. New Mexico and California also have lost TB-free status, and Michigan last summer gained split-state status, while it continues to deal with TB in cattle and free-ranging deer in the state’s Upper Peninsula. Ellis said the plan to regain Texas’ TB-free status was developed with the dairy and beef cattle industry, and one aspect involves testing all dairies a chore already accomplished and at least 2,400 purebred or seed stock beef cattle herds. More than 500 beef cattle herds have been tested in Texas, with no TB infection detected, but more herd tests are needed to provide adequate disease surveillance. The USDA has extended funding to pay for herd tests, and more than 500 private veterinary practitioners in Texas are certified to provide the service.

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Monday, March 7,2005

Packer pays damages

by WLJ
A jury in the U.S. District Court in Omaha awarded a judgment in favor of South Sioux city resident Carol Marmo for damages and injuries she suffered due to numerous releases of hydrogen sulfide gas by IBP, Inc. This trial was the culmination of a nearly five year court battle for Mrs. Marmo and vindication for the community in a more than fifteen-year fight against IBP for damages caused by massive chemical emissions from IBP’s Dakota City wastewater treatment facility. Mrs. Marmo is represented by the law firms of Croker Huck Kasher Dewitt & Gonderinger of Omaha and Resolution Law Group, PC of Washington, DC, in her battle. Richard Dewitt, one of the attorneys for Mrs. Marmo, exclaimed, “This is a great victory for the Siouxland community. IBP poisoned the air around its Dakota facility for more than a decade and now they are finally being called to account.” Dewitt then continued, “while this is only the first case of many that will be tried, including cases involving asthmatic adults and children, this result shows that IBP’s behavior will not be tolerated.” During the last decade, the community has been studied by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, the Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality cited IBP for violations of law, the Department of Justice has filed suit against IBP, and community members have engaged in a long fight to stop IBP from polluting the local air. “Finally, the community’s right to clean air has been vindicated in the courts,” explained Michael Goodstein of Resolution Law Group,“there are more of these cases to be tried before the impact of IBP’s actions can be fully addressed, but tonight the people and children of Siouxland can breath a little easier.” Mr. Dewitt concluded, “We got involved with these cases because we saw that people in the community—particular the elderly and children—were injured. The stories of respiratory problems and asthma in this community are astounding.” Hydrogen sulfide is a highly toxic gas produced in massive volumes during the processing of wastewater at IBP’s Dakota City facility. The IBP facility emitted nearly a ton a day of this toxin into the environment in the Siouxland area. Persons exposed to hydrogen sulfide, especially sensitive ones such as the elderly or children, can suffer significant distress including eye, nose and throat irritation and asthma. The next trial in this series will begin on April 5, in the Nebraska District Court in Omaha, NE. — WLJ

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Monday, March 7,2005

Researchers compile text on forage toxins

by WLJ
There’s very little chance it will leapfrog “The Da Vinci Code” on any bestseller lists, but a new book compiled and edited by two University of Missouri professors might just gain a devoted cult following. Agronomist Craig Roberts and animal scientist Don Spiers, along with Chuck West of the University of Arkansas, co-edited “Neophytodium in Cool-Season Grasses” (2005 Blackwell Publishing). The less-than-catchy title belies the significance of the work, which addresses every aspect of naturally occurring toxins in pasture grasses’ a huge problem for livestock producers in Missouri and around the world. “Neophytodium” is the Latin word for the fungus also called the endophyte—that occurs in tall fescue grass. Although the endophyte makes tall fescue more resistant to drought and other stresses, the most common strain produces toxins that sicken grazing animals. One of the less obvious symptoms is a dramatic decline in the animal’s weight gain—and the producer’s profits. “It’s been estimated that in the United States, the annual loss to cattle producers alone is $600 million,” Spiers said. “The magnitude of the fescue toxicosis problem is huge. It’s very important to have the latest information on how to address the problem, and this book represents all the authors world-wide who are doing the top work.” He said animal scientists at MU and other institutions are examining genetic markers in grazing animals. “Can we identify animals that are sensitive, remove them and have only those animals that are resistant? Those are the sorts of things we’re looking at.” “Basically, this is an international book,” Roberts said. “It includes contributions from just about every kind of agricultural scientist you can imagine: veterinary toxicology, molecular biology entomology plant pathology, biochemistry—and of course agronomy and animal science. These are all different disciplines, but in here they’re all dealing with toxicology.” Roberts said the book contains “a wide range from basic science to practical applications,” starting with the molecular biology of the endophyte and concluding with “straight practical application: what happens in the field.” Although producers might find the information useful, he said, “It’s intended mostly for educators, researchers and decision-makers in the forage and livestock industry. All graduate students in forage and livestock, veterinary sciences and animal sciences would benefit from this book. They need the straight scoop on this.” A definitive text is long overdue, Roberts said. “With all the phony home remedies, this book will serve as a myth-buster.” The book includes a list of 97 alleged remedies for fescue toxicosis, all recorded by Eldon Cole, MU Extension livestock specialist in Lawrence County. The suggestions are often contradictory and sometimes ridiculous. For example: “Chase sore-footed animals with pickup, horse, dog or four-wheeler to stimulate circulation.” Toxicosis has been a problem in Missouri since the 1940s, when farmers began planting their pastures in tall fescue. “They’ve grown to just accept it as a problem they have to live with, so they take that loss,” Spiers said. “But in this day and time, efficiency is the name of the game, so it’s important they do everything they can to manage this problem.” Roberts predicted that “Neophytodium in Cool-Season Grasses” will have an impact that outstrips its sales figures. “This book will influence agricultural policy,” he said. “Right now, it’s the authoritative book on the subject, and it addresses economics, agriculture, commerce and even ethics.” Spiers agreed. “There is not other book out there as up-to-date as this one is, that has brought all this information together.” For more information or to order a copy of the book, log onto http://store.blackwell-professional.com and insert the following number in the search section (0813801893). — WLJ

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Monday, March 7,2005

Simmental adds $ indices

by WLJ
The American Simmental Association (ASA) has added dollar indices to its Spring 2005 Sire Summary. Working with USDA geneticist, Dr. Mike MacNeil, ASA blended EPDs with five years of economic data on prices and costs to predict the dollar differences between sires when used in a commercial operation. Terminal Index (TI) is designed for evaluating sires’’ economic merit in situations where they are bred to mature Angus cows and all offspring are placed in the feedlot and sold grade and yield. Consequently, maternal traits such as milk, stayability and maternal calving ease are not considered in the index. The All-Purpose Index (API) evaluates sires being used on the entire cow herd (bred to both Angus first-calf heifers and mature cows) with a portion of their daughters being retained for breeding and the remaining heifers and steers being put on feed and sold grade and yield. All EPDs, with the exception of tenderness, are taken into consideration in this index. The indices calculate the estimated differences between bulls in net dollars returned per cow exposed. For example, a bull with a +23 and +1 for TI and API would be expected to return $23 and $1 more per cow exposed than a bull with a 0 for both indexes. Besides being a tool to improve seedstock, commercial producers can use these indices to determine how much a bull is worth. Or, put another way, how much they can pay for one bull compared to another. For example, when buying a terminal sire, a producer can quickly figure a bull scoring +30 for TI is worth an extra $3,600 over a $0 bull if both are exposed to 30 cows over 4 years ($30 x 30 head x 4 years = $3,600). For more information visit ASA’s web site at www.simmental.org, or contact Dr. Wade Shafer at 406/587-4531. — WLJ

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